The CAP is also affected by agricultural concessions granted to a large number of countries under several multilateral and bilateral agreements, as well as unilateral derogations granted under the Generalised System of Preferences (GSP). These preferential agreements explain the high level of EU agricultural imports from developing countries (3.2.10, Table VI). Where this Agreement relates to legal agreements or instruments or specific provisions, or by reference to the fact that those references contain indications of interpretation and related explanations. The GATT 1947 initially applied to agriculture, but was incomplete, and the signatory States (or “Contracting Parties”) excluded this sector from the scope of the principles set out in the General Agreement. During the period 1947-1994, members were allowed to benefit from export subsidies on primary agricultural products and, under certain conditions, to impose import restrictions, so that major agricultural raw materials faced trade barriers to an unusual extent in other product sectors. The road to a fair and market-oriented agricultural trade system has therefore been difficult and long; and the negotiations were finally concluded during the Uruguay Round. Agriculture has a special status in the WTO trade agreements and agreements (signed in 1994 and entered into force on 1 January 1995), with the sector having a specific agreement, the Agreement on Agriculture, whose provisions are given priority. In addition, certain provisions of the Agreement on the Application of Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) also concern agricultural production and trade. The same applies to the Agreement on the Commercial Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) with regard to the protection of geographical names. In addition, the provisions of the Agreement on Agriculture are complemented by the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and technical assistance mechanisms. The 2003 CAP reform, which decoupled most of the existing direct aid, and the subsequent sectoral reforms resulted in the postponement of most of the aid under the yellow and blue boxes in the green box (€61.6 billion for the period 2016-2017, see table below).

Aid granted under the “Amber Box” (AMS or Aggregate Measurement of Support) was €81 billion. 2016-2017, even with successive waves of enlargement, to EUR 6.9 billion at the beginning of the contractual period. The European Union is thus largely respecting the commitments made in Marrakesh (€72.38 billion per year) for the AMS. In addition, the “Blue Box” reached 4.6 billion euros during the same registration period. . . .